Top 500 Interconnect Trends

Published twice a year and publicly available at www.top500.org, the TOP500 supercomputing list ranks the world’s most powerful computer systems according to the Linpack benchmark rating system.

Taken from Nvidia Networking

Summary of Findings for Nvidia Networking.

  • NVIDIA GPU or Network (InfiniBand, Ethernet) accelerate 342 systems or 68% of overall TOP500 systems
  • InfiniBand accelerates seven of the top ten supercomputers in the world
  • NVIDIA BlueField DPU and HDR InfiniBand Networking accelerate the world’s 1st academic cloud-native supercomputer at Cambridge University
  • NVIDIA InfiniBand and Ethernet networking solutions connect 318 systems or 64% of overall TOP500 platforms
  • InfiniBand accelerates 170 systems, 21% growth compared to June 2020 TOP500 list
  • InfiniBand accelerates #1, #2 supercomputers in the US, #1 in China, #1, #2 and #3 in Europe
  • NVIDIA 25 gigabit and faster Ethernet solutions connect 62% of total Ethernet systems

Rapid Growth in HPC Storage

The Article is taken from On-Prem No Longer Centre Stage for Broader HPC Storage

AI/ML, more sophisticated analytics, and larger-scale HPC problems all bode well for the on-prem storage market in high performance computing (HPC) and are an even bigger boon for cloud storage vendors.

Nossokoff points to several shifts in the storage industry and among the top supercomputing sites, particularly in the U.S. that reflect changing priorities with storage technologies, especially with the mixed file problems AI/ML introduce into the traditional HPC storage hierarchy. “We’re seeing a focus on raw sequential large block performance in terms of TB/s, high-throughput metadata and random small-block IOPS performance, cost-effective capacity for increasingly large datasets in all HPC workloads, and work to add intelligent placement of data so it’s where it needs to be.”

In addition to keeping pace with the storage tweaks to suit AI/ML as well as traditional HPC, there have been shifts in the vendor ecosystem this year as well. These will likely have an impact on what some of the largest HPC sites do over the coming years as they build and deploy their first exascale machines. Persistent memory is becoming more common, companies like Samsung are moving from NVMe to CXL, which is an indication of where that might fit in the future HPC storage and memory stack. Companies like Vast Data, which were once seen as an up and coming player in the on-prem storage hardware space for HPC transformed into a software company, Nossokoff says.

On-Prem No Longer Centre Stage for Broader HPC Storage – NextPlatform

UDP Tuning to maximise performance

There is a interesting article how your UDP traffic can maximise performance with a few tweak. The article is taken from UDP Tuning

The most important factors as mentioned in the article is

  • Use jumbo frames: performance will be 4-5 times better using 9K MTUs
  • packet size: best performance is MTU size minus packet header size. For example for a 9000Byte MTU, use 8972 for IPV4, and 8952 for IPV6.
  • socket buffer size: For UDP, buffer size is not related to RTT the way TCP is, but the defaults are still not large enough. Setting the socket buffer to 4M seems to help a lot in most cases
  • core selection: UDP at 10G is typically CPU limited, so its important to pick the right core. This is particularly true on Sandy/Ivy Bridge motherboards.

Do take a look at the article UDP Tuning

AMD HPC User Forum Networking Meeting at ISC21

AMD HPC User Forum Networking Meeting

For more information, see AMD HPC User Forum Networking Meeting

Wednesday, June 30, 2021
7:00am – 8:15am (PDT)
10:00am – 11:15pm (EDT)
4:00pm – 5:15pm (CEST)

To Register Live at ISC21: AMD HPC User Forum Networking Meeting – Registration (eventscloud.com)

  • 7:00 – 7:15 am: Opening Remarks
    • Mike Norman, PhD, Director, SDSC
    • Brad McCredie, PhD, Corporate Vice President, AMD
  • 7:15 – 7:20 am: Introduction of Forum
    • Mary Thomas, PhD, AMD User Forum President, Computational Data Scientist, SDSC
  • 7:20 – 7:50 am: Forum Members discuss their work and value of Forum
    • Mahidhar Tatineni, PhD, SDSC, (User Forum Special Interest Group)
    • Alastair Basden, PhD, HPC Technical Manager, Durham University
    • Lorna Smith, Programme Manager, EPCC, University of Edinburgh
    • Sagar Dolas, Program Lead – Future Computing & Networking, Surf
    • Hatem Ltaief, PhD, Principal Research Scientist, KAUST
    • Marc O’Brien, Cancer Research UK Cancer Institute, Cambridge University
  • 7:50 – 8:00 am : Q/A

Quantum computer fits into two 19-inch server racks

Image: University of Innsbruck

As part of an EU-funded project called AQTION, a group of scientists from the University of Innsbruck in Austria successfully set up a fully functional ion trap quantum computer into two 19-inch server racks, as typically found in data centers around the world. The device only requires a single wall-mounted power plug and is otherwise self-contained.

The prototype is an exciting development in an industry that relies mostly on lab-based implementations, where quantum computers can only be controlled thanks to purpose-built infrastructure. Developing a set-up that is more accessible is, therefore, key to expanding the reach of the technology.  

ZDNet

For more information, do take a look at Quantum computers take up a lot of space. Researchers decided to shrink this one down

CentOS Replacement Rocky Linux Is Now in GA and Under Independent Control

The Rocky Enterprise Software Foundation (RESF) is announcing the general availability of Rocky Linux, release 8.4, designed as a drop-in replacement for the soon-to-be discontinued CentOS. The GA release is launching six-and-a-half months after Red Hat deprecated its support for the widely popular, free CentOS server operating system.

HPC Wire 21-June-2021 ()

For more information, do take a look at CentOS Replacement Rocky Linux is now in GA and Under Independent Control

Do take a look at Rocky Linux site

Supercomputing aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

In this episode of HPE Tech Talk, learn how the International Space Station will use the supercomputer’s next-gen edge computing capabilities to accelerate space exploration and the discovery of applications that benefit us here on earth.

HPE Tech Talk

For more information, see Supercomputing aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

Basic CURL Commands

curl is a command line tool to transfer data to or from a server. It is able to use any of the supported protocols like HTTP, FTP, IMAP, POP3, SCP, SFTP, SMTP, TFTP, TELNET, LDAP or FILE. This tool is very useful for automation, since it is designed to work without user interaction. Furthermore, curl can transfer multiple file at once.

Basic Single URL Usage

% curl https://thelinuxcluster.com/

2a. Save the Download File with a preferred file name

Save the Download File on the local machine with the name provided with the parameter.

% curl -o test.o https://thelinuxcluster.com/test.output

2b. Save the Download File

% curl -O https://thelinuxcluster.com/test.output

2c. Download Multiple Files. Just Multiple -O

% curl -O https://thelinuxcluster.com/CentOS1.iso -O https://thelinuxcluster.com/CentOS2.iso -O https://thelinuxcluster.com/CentOS3.iso

3a. Display a Progress Meter

% curl --progress-bar -o test.o https://thelinuxcluster.com/test.output 

3b. Do not display a Progressive Bar

% curl --silent -o test.o https://thelinuxcluster.com/test.output

4 Limit Rate of Data Transfer

% curl --limit-rate 1000K -o test.o https://thelinuxcluster.com/CentOS1.iso

5a Uploading a File to the FTP Server

% curl -u username:userpassword -T myfile ftp://ftp.thelinuxcluster.com/

5b. Appending the File to the FTP Server

% curl -u username:userpassword -a -T myfile ftp://ftp.thelinuxcluster.com/

5c Downloading the File to the File Server

% curl ftp:/ftp.thelinuxcluster.com/CentOS79.iso --user username:userpassword -o myCentOS79.iso

6a. Verifying SSL Certificate

% curl --cacert server.crt https://thesupersecureserver.com

6b. Ignoring SSL Certificate

% curl -k https://thesupersecureserver.com/

7a Proxy Server

% curl -x proxy_name:proxy_port https://thelinuxcluster.com

7b Proxy Server which requires authentication

% curl --user username:userpassword -x proxy_name:proxy_port https://thelinuxcluster.com 

8 Sending Email

% curl --url "smtps"//smtp.thelinuxcluster.com:465: --ssl-reqd --mail-from "sender@thelinuxcluster.com" --mail-rcpt "receiver@thelinuxcluster.com" --upload-file maincontent.txt --user "sender@thelinuxcluster.com:password" --insecure

References:

  1. Learn to use CURL command with examples
  2. Curl command in Linux with Examples