If you encounter “gccgo: error: ../x86_64-pc-linux-gnu/libgo/libgotool.a: No such file or directory”
/home/user1/gcc-10.4.0/host-x86_64-pc-linux-gnu/gcc/gccgo -B/home/user1/gcc-10.4.0/host-x86_64-pc-linux-gnu/gcc/ -B/usr/x86_64-pc-linux-gnu/bin/ -B/usr/x86_64-pc-linux-gnu/lib/ -isystem /usr/x86_64-pc-linux-gnu/include -isystem /usr/x86_64-pc-linux-gnu/sys-include -g -O2 -I ../x86_64-pc-linux-gnu/libgo -static-libstdc++ -static-libgcc -L ../x86_64-pc-linux-gnu/libgo -L ../x86_64-pc-linux-gnu/libgo/.libs -o go ../.././gotools/../libgo/go/cmd/go/alldocs.go ../.././gotools/../libgo/go/cmd/go/go11.go ../.././gotools/../libgo/go/cmd/go/main.go ../x86_64-pc-linux-gnu/libgo/libgotool.a
gccgo: error: ../x86_64-pc-linux-gnu/libgo/libgotool.a: No such file or directory
make: *** [Makefile:821: go] Error 1
make: Leaving directory '/home/user1/gcc-10.4.0/host-x86_64-pc-linux-gnu/gotools'
make: *** [Makefile:14649: all-gotools] Error 2
make: Leaving directory '/home/user1/gcc-10.4.0'
make: *** [Makefile:997: all] Error 2
The issue can be easily resolved by not building gcc in the same directory as the source code. At GCC Home
% mkdir build
% ../configure --prefix=/usr/local/gcc-10.4.0 --disable-multilib --enable-languages=all
% make -j 8
% make install
The article is taken from
https://github.com/NIH-HPC/Singularity-Tutorial. I’m personally learning much from the systematic rich contents and below are my learning points……
There are popular sites for Singularity Download that has pre-build containers
Downloading the Containers
% singularity pull library://godlovedc/funny/lolcow
INFO: Downloading library image
89.2MiB / 89.2MiB [========================================================================================================================================================] 100 % 5.4 MiB/s 0s
WARNING: integrity: signature not found for object group 1
WARNING: Skipping container verification
The Singularity File has a .sif extension something like this
Entering the Shell of Singularity
% singularity shell lolcow_latest.sif
Singularity> cat /etc/os-release
VERSION="16.04.5 LTS (Xenial Xerus)"
PRETTY_NAME="Ubuntu 16.04.5 LTS"
You will notice the container is running Ubuntu…… although the Host OS could be different
a. The user remains the same inside and outside of the container.
b. The hostname remains the same inside and outside the container
c. Running the application within the containers
Singularity> cowsay moo
< moo >
d. Exiting the Application
Singularity > exit
UUIDs (Universal Unique Identifier) for network interface card can be generated quite easily using the command “uuidgen”. For example
% uuidgen eth0
You can go to /etc/sysconfig/network-sscripts/ifcfg-eth0
Step 1: Do a Yum Install
# yum install nfs-utils rpcbind
Step 2: Enable the Service at Boot Time
# systemctl enable nfs-server
# systemctl enable rpcbind
# systemctl enable nfs-lock (it does not need to be enabled since rpc-statd.service is static.)
# systemctl enable nfs-idmap (it does not need to be enabled since nfs-idmapd.service is static.)
Step 3: Start the Services
# systemctl start rpcbind
# systemctl start nfs-server
# systemctl start nfs-lock
# systemctl start nfs-idmap
Step 4: Confirm the status of NFS
# systemctl status nfs
Step 5: Create a mount point
# mkdir /shared-data
Step 6: Exports the Share
# vim /etc/exports
Step 7: Export the Share
# exportfs -rv
Step 8: Restart the NFS Services
# systemctl restart nfs-server
Step 9: Configure the Firewall
# firewall-cmd --add-service=nfs --zone=internal --permanent
# firewall-cmd --add-service=mountd --zone=internal --permanent
# firewall-cmd --add-service=rpc-bind --zone=internal --permanent
How to configure NFS in RHEL 7
What firewalld services should be active on an NFS server in RHEL 7?
The CentOS project recently announced a shift in strategy for CentOS.
It will be shifting to an upstream build (testing patches and updates before inclusion in the upstream vendor).
Additionally, support for CentOS Linux 8 has been cut short, from May 31, 2029 to December 31, 2021.
CentOS 7 will continue to be supported as a downstream version of RHEL 7 till Jun 2024.
Where do we go from here? We can look at
Rocky Linux. Rocky Linux aims to function as a downstream build as CentOS had done previously, building releases after they have been added by the upstream vendor, not before. Rocky Linux is led by Gregory Kurtzer, founder of the CentOS project.
Using htop to list users. Which is one of my favourite.
% top -U user1
pstree which displays a tree of processes and can include parents and child processes which make it easier to understand.
% pstree -l -a -p -s user1
where -l : Long format -a : Show command line args -p : Display Linux PIDs -s : See parents of the selected process
pgrep look up or signal processes based on name and other attributes
% pgrep -l -u user1
Linux list processes by user names
I was compiling an external programs required by VMD surf at $VMDHOME/vmd-1.9.4a48/lib/surf
% make depend
make: *** No rule to make target `/usr/include/sgidefs.h', needed by `surf.o'. Stop.
You will require yum install imake
# yum install makedepend
If you have encountered issues like
mount.nfs: requested NFS version or transport protocol is not supported
mount.nfs4: Protocol not supported
To resolve this
Mount with NFS version 3 (with 4 verbose flags)
% mount -vvvv -t nfs -o vers=3 nfs-server:/share /mnt/nfs
Error “mount.nfs: requested NFS version or transport protocol is not supported” when attempting to mount an NFS share on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6
Rufus is a utility that helps format and create bootable USB flash drives, such as USB keys/pendrives, memory sticks, etc.
The write-up is taken from RedHat
Using nfsstat and nfsiostat to troubleshoot NFS performance issues on Linux
NFS relies on the existing network infrastructure, any glitches on the network may affect the performance of the connection. One of the tools that can be used is nfsstat
% yum install nfs-utils
The nfsstat command
The nfsstat command displays statistical information about the NFS and Remote Procedure Call (RPC) interfaces to the kernel.
On Server Side,
% nfsstat -s
Server rpc stats:
calls badcalls badclnt badauth xdrcall
107310012 0 0 0 0
The most important field to check is the badcalls, which represents the total number of calls rejected by the RPC layer. When the badcalls is greater than 0, than the underlying network needs to be checked, as there might be latency.
On NFS Client Side,
% nfsstat -c
Client rpc stats:
calls retrans authrefrsh
23158 0 23172
Client nfs v3:
null getattr setattr lookup access readlink
0 0% 7237 31% 7 0% 1443 6% 7874 34% 11 0%
read write create mkdir symlink mknod
578 2% 4548 19% 585 2% 1 0% 0 0% 0 0%
remove rmdir rename link readdir readdirplus
0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 51 0%
fsstat fsinfo pathconf commit
25 0% 10 0% 5 0% 781 3%
The client is doing well as it has relatively few retransmission requests. If you are encountering excessive retransmissions, you may want to adjust data transfer buffer sizes, which are specified by the mount command options rsize and size.
Check for dropped packets
Check dropped packet by running the following command on both the server and the client:
% nfsstat -o net
Client packet stats:
packets udp tcp tcpconn
0 0 0 0