This write up entry is taken from this wonderful article from Corning titled “The Real Facts About Copper Twisted-Pair at 10 Gb/s and Beyond” (pdf)
- The IEEE 802.3an 10GBASE-T Standard was approved in July 2006. This standard provides guidance for data transmission of 10 Gb/s in which multi-gigabit rates are sent over 4-pair copper cable within a 500 MHz bandwidth.
- CAT 6A is intended to support 10G Operation up to 100m.
- For 10GB require 500 Mhz frequency range requires power consumption (10-15KW) of the 10G interfaces due to increased insertion loss, as well as needing to overcome internal and external cross talk issues.
- 10G optical PHY latency has 1000 times better latency performance than 10G copper. 10G optical has typical PHY latency measurable in the nanosecond range, whereas 10G copper has PHY latency in microseconds.
- What is Latency? Extensive data encoding and signal processing is required to achieve an aceptable bit error rate (BER). Electronic digital signal processing (DSP) technique are required to corrct internal noise impairments, which contributes significantly to an inherent time delay while recovering the transmitted data packets.
- 10G X2 transceivers support up to 16 ports per line card. Maximum power dissipation is 4 W per port.
- 10G XFP optical transceivers support up to 24-36 ports per line card. Maximum power dissipation is 2.5 W per port.
- Emerging 10G SFP+ optical transceivers will support up to 48 ports per line card. Maximum power dissipation will be 1 watt per port. The SFP+ transceiver will offer significantly lower cost compared to the X2 and XFP transceivers.